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Frechen stoneware is a type of pottery that is prevalent in the 16th and 17th centuries. This type of pottery is an import to Britain as it was produced in Cologne, Germany. The pottery itself is believed to be named after the town where to pottery originated; the surnames of 16th century potters who moved from Frechen to Cologne also adopted this name (Adler 2005). Cologne during this period was not only an important market city but also one of the largest ports in Germany. It is believed they moved to Cologne as transportation of their pottery from Frechen to Cologne meant that a lot of pottery was broken during transportation, instead they relocated to the city and had the raw materials such as wood and clay delivered to them (Adler 2005). Frechen stoneware was produced until the 1850’s when due to popular demand of earthenware (Adler 2005).

These two fragments of Frechen stoneware where discovered in a pit fill within Trench II (Woods 2012). The shallowness of the pit and its steep sides are reminiscent of planting and looks like it was dug quickly to accommodate some plant feature perhaps a shrub which gives further evidence for a formally arranged garden adjacent to Middleton Hall (Austin & Dollery 2011). The date of this fragment gives a rough indication of the 18th century, therefore fitting in with the historic record of the Middleton phase of the estate (Dollery 2012)

Adler, B. 2005 Early Stoneware Steins from the Les Paul Collection: A Survey of All German Stoneware Centres from 1500 to 1850. Beatrix Adler.

Austin, D. & Dollery, J. The Excavation. In Austin, D [Ed] 2011 Paradise Lost In Search of a Garden before the Garden: Middleton Hall. Report of project conducted in 2011. Heritage Lottery Fund.

Dollery, J 2012 Paradise Rediscovered: Charting the rise and decline of a lost manorial centre in the historic parish of Llanarthney, Carmarthenshire. University of Wales, Trinity Saint David. Unpublished.

Woods, M. 2012 The National Botanic Garden of Wales: A History Through Finds. University of Wales, Trinity Saint David. Unpublished

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